Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve is situated in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonumus Prefecture in at the southern tip of Yunnan. It consists of five isolated sub–reserves with a total area of 242,510 ha —Mengyang Reserve, Menglun Reserve, Mengla Reserve, Shangyong Reserve, and Mangao Reserve. It makes up 12.68% of Xishuangbanna Prefecture. The reserve was initiated in 1958, and it was upgraded to a national nature reserve with the approval of the State Council. In 1993, the reserve was adopted as a member of the UNESCO Man-and-Biosphere Reserve Network. In 2006, it was identified as a pilot nature reserve of the State Forestry Administration.
Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve is a multi-purposed nature reserve defined for protection of the tropical rainforests, tropical monsoon forests and the rare and precious tropical plants and animals. It is the largest and most diverse primitive tropical forest area remained in China. There are typical and spectacular tropical landscapes as well as diverse bio-resources. In 2005, the tropical forest in Xishuangbanna was honored as one of “the most beautiful forest in China” by Chinese National Geography.
In Xishuangbanna National Reserve, the forests can by referred into nine vegetation types, fourteen sub-types and forty-nine formations. In these forests there grow more than 5000 species of high plant, including 56 species of national rare, precious or endangered plant, and 31 species of national key protected plant. There inhabit 818 species of vertebrates—130 species of mammals, 456 species of birds, 53 species of amphibians, 79 species of reptiles, and 100 species of fishes, among which 112 species belongs to the national key protected animal. In addition, 1100 species of insects are confirmed living in this nature reserve.